Linux (slackware) commands list by 팁휘

Linux를 가끔 쓰는데, 그 때마다 매번 하는 일이 바로 커맨드 찾기.
커맨드 이름은 아는데 기능이 기억이 안 나거나, 기능은 기억하는데 이름을 모르거나,
아니면 둘 다 몰라서 스크립트 짜다가 다 짜고 나서 커맨드의 존재를 알게 되거나..

Ted's Slackware 12.2 command reference.
Ted Felix  (www.tedfelix.com)
April 2009

Help
   man
      Online manual.  Try "man mount" to get the manual page for the mount
      command.  Also try "man 1 intro" to see the introduction for section
      1 of the manual.  See info.

   info
      Like man, an online manual.  Just type info to find out what's
      available.  Sometimes the "info" manual (if it exists) is better than
      the "man" manual so always try both.  A good example is "info grep"
      which is far more detailed than "man grep".

   whatis
      Search for a one-line description of a command.  Gives the title
      from the man page.  See apropos.

   apropos
      Searches the whatis database on both command name and man page
      title.  Use this if you aren't sure of the command name.  Try
      "apropos MSDOS".  See whatis.

   help (bash)
      Similar to man and info, but gives help on a bash built-in
      command.  Try "help", "help cd", and "help for".

   man2html
      If you get sick of man, grab the man page from /usr/man,
      "gzip -d" it, then run man2html on it and view it in html.  Good for
      really huge man files like gcc's.

   xman (X)
      A GUI version of man.  A bit clunky, but it works.  Good for browsing
      entire sections of the manual.

   slackbook (Slackware)
      A great intro to Slackware found on CD #1.

Getting Started
   passwd
      Change your password.

   adduser (Slackware)
      Interactive add user script.  Uses "useradd" to do its work.  Takes
      into account unique user needs for Slackware.  Found in /usr/sbin.
      Always create a new user and log in as them.  *Never* work as root.
      See sudo.

   exit
      Logs you out.  Ctrl-D works too.

   sudo
      Run a command as root.  To power off the computer: "sudo /sbin/poweroff".
      For sudo to work, you must add yourself to "/etc/sudoers"
      (e.g. "userid ALL = ALL").  man sudoers for more.  See sudoedit.

   sudoedit
      Edit a file as root.  Uses the editor in your EDITOR environment
      variable.  Allows editing of files owned by root when you aren't root.
      See sudo.

   poweroff
      Powers the computer off.  Found in /sbin.  Can only be run as root, so
      use sudo: "sudo /sbin/poweroff".  See shutdown and sudo.

   reboot
      Reboots the computer.  Found in /sbin.  Can only be run as root, so
      use sudo: "sudo /sbin/reboot".  See shutdown and sudo.

   shutdown
      Shutdown or reboot the computer.  To turn the computer off:
          sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now
      To reboot:
          sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now

   xorgsetup (Slackware)
      Configures X for your video card and monitor.  Run it once each time
      you change video hardware or when you first install Linux/X.  It in
      turn invokes "Xorg -configure" to do most of its work.  See startx
      and xorgconfig.

   startx
      Brings up X.  Be sure to run xorgsetup first or else X will not take
      full advantage of your video card and monitor.

   whereis
      Searches a list of typical system directories (e.g. /bin, /sbin,
      /etc, ...) for a filename.  "whereis libm" will find the math library.
      "whereis ls" will find the location of the ls command.  This is useful
      when you are trying to run administrator commands as a regular user.
      Regular users do not usually have /sbin in their paths, so this:
      "sudo shutdown" will generally fail.  "whereis shutdown" tells you
      that shutdown is in /sbin.  So "sudo /sbin/shutdown" will work.
      See "which" and "slocate".

   chsh
      Change your login shell.  (If you prefer csh, ksh, zsh, or something
      else.)

   Alt-Ctrl-F1, Alt-Ctrl-F2, Alt-Ctrl-F3...
      Switches between pseudo-terminals.  Note that you can also switch with
      just Alt-F1, Alt-F2, etc...  However, when in X, Alt and Ctrl are
      required.

File Utilities (simple)
   mc
      Midnight Commander.  Console file manager.

   pilot
      Pilot.  Console file manager.

   ls
      list files in a directory.  Some useful options:
         -l   give details such as sizes and dates
         -a   show all files including hidden ones
         -t   sort by date/time
         -r   sort in reverse order
      Try "ls -lrt".  Also try "vdir".

   tree
      Like "ls", but shows the directory structure in a colored tree diagram.

   cd
      change to another directory

   pwd
      displays the current directory

   mkdir
      Make a directory.

   mv
      Move or rename files.

   rename
      Rename a batch of files based on a pattern.

   cp
      Copy files.

   rm
      Delete a file.

   rmdir
      Delete a directory that is empty.

   cat
      Copies a file to the display.

   less
      A file pager for displaying large files a page at a time.  Better
      than "more" as you can page up and down.  Try "cat /etc/passwd | less"
      or "ps aux | less".

   most
      Like less, but can split the view into multiple windows.  Try "Ctrl-X 2".

   more
      A file pager.  See "less".

   pg
      Another pager like less and more.

   which
      Finds a command's location in the path.  See whereis and slocate.

   type (bash)
      tells you where a command will be run from.  Similar to which, but
      indicates whether the command is hashed or built-in.

Text Editors (Graphical, requiring X)
   mousepad (X)
      A text editor for X.

   kwrite (X/KDE)
      Includes code highlighting.  Default KDE editor.

   kedit (X/KDE)
      Simplest KDE text editor.  Fewer features than kwrite.

   kate (X/KDE)
      KDE's Advanced Text Editor.  Like kwrite, but with many additional
      features like a filesystem browser and a shell window.

   xedit (X)
      A very strange editor for X.

Text Editors (Console, easy to use)
   nano
      Uses Ctrl keys for functions.  Function reminders always on bottom
      of screen.  Very easy to use.

   pico
      Use this if nano isn't available.  This is like nano but with fewer
      features.

   joe
      Remember WordStar?  "Ctrl-K H" for help.

   mcedit
      Uses the F-keys for functions.

   jed
      While it has nice menus using the Alt key, the Delete, Home, and End
      keys do not work.  If they can be fixed (maybe with a proper
      keymapping?) this would be a great editor.

Text Editors (Console, hard to use unless you know them)
   emacs
      The "Edit MACroS" editor.

   jove
      A version of emacs.  "teachjove" will load up a tutorial on jove.

   vi
      The "VIsual editor".  In Slackware this links to elvis.

   elvis
      A version of "vi".

   vim
      A version of "vi".  VI iMproved.  Try "vimtutor" which will help you
      learn vi and vim.

   evim
      A slightly easier, modeless version of vim.

   ed
      A line editor like DOS's EDLIN.

X Applications
   xlock
      Lock the local display until a password is entered.

   rclock
      Clock with reminders (in ~/.rclock).  Also try xclock and oclock.

   spider
      Solitaire.

   xcalc
      Calculator.

   xneko
      Cat chases mouse.

   xterm
      Console window.

   xmag
      Screen magnifier.

KDE Applications
   kcalc
      KDE calculator

   kmix
      KDE audio mixer.

   kaudiocreator
      KDE CD ripper.

   khexedit
      KDE GUI hex editor.  See "bpe" for the console.

   kturtle
      KDE turtle programming language.  Simpler than LOGO.

Miscellaneous
   sc
      Console spreadsheet application.  Press ? for help.

   mkpasswd
      makes random passwords

   factor
      Prime factors.

   shuf
      Generate random permutations.  Shuffle.

   cal
      Perpetual calendar.

   gnuplot
      Mathematical plotting program.  At the "gnuplot>" prompt, try
      "plot sin(x)".

   hunt
      A networked multi-player maze deathmatch game.

Audio Utilities
   rexima
      Text console mixer.

   sox
      Audio manipulation utility.

   flac
      FLAC codec.  Lossless audio compression.  Patent-free.

   lame
      MP3 codec.  Due to patent issues, this usually needs to be downloaded
      separately, built, and installed.

   oggenc
      Ogg Vorbis encoder.  Ogg is similar to MP3 but without patent issues.

   normalize
      Normalizes audio files so that the loudest point is as loud as possible.

User Management
   passwd
      Change your password.

   whoami
      Displays your user id.

   logname
      Displays your user id.

   su
      Become root.  To be safe, use "sudo" or "sudoedit" instead.

   groups
      Display groups you currently belong to.

   id
      Display user id, group id, and groups.

   useradd
      Add a user.  See Slackware's adduser script.

   gpasswd
      Manage groups.

   newgrp
      Log in to a new group.  See "sg".

   sg
      Run a command as member of another group.

   groupadd
      Add a group.  Also check out groupdel and groupmod.

   last
      Show a list of login events.  Note that the list is in reverse chrono
      order, so the newest are at the top.  "lastb" shows only the bad login
      attempts.

   users
      Show users currently logged in.  Also try "rusers".

   who
      Show users currently logged in along with some statistics.  Also try
      "rwho".

   w
      Show users currently logged in along with lots of statistics.

   ac
      Show user connect time.

   lastlog
      Displays the last login date/time for all users.

File Utilities (advanced)
   chown
      Change owner and group of a file.

   chmod
      Change permimssions on a file.

   tail
      Displays the end of a file.  Use the -f option to follow a file as it
      is being written to.  Great for watching log files.  See tailf.

   tailf
      Like "tail -f" but more efficient.

   head
      Displays the beginning of a file.

   wc
      Displays a line count, word count, and byte count for a file.

   grep
      Searches files for a string (e.g. "grep hello *.txt").  See rgrep.

   rgrep
      Searches a directory tree recursively for files containing a string.
      To search all .c files recursively for "#define":
          rgrep -R '*.c' '#define' .
      See cscope.

   replace (MySQL)
      Replaces strings with other strings in a file or files.  Global find
      and replace.  Use along with "find" if you need to recurse
      subdirectories.

   look
      Performs a binary search on a sorted file for a value at the beginning
      of each line.

   gpg
      OpenPGP encryption.

   cmp
      Binary file compare.

   diff
      Text file compare.

   diff3
      Three-way file compare.

   sdiff
      Shows a side-by-side diff of two files.

   merge
      Automatic three-way merge.

   comm
      Compare sorted files.

   find
      Finds files in a directory hierarchy.  To find all the .txt files
      starting in the current directory ("."):
           find . -name '*.txt'
      See slocate.  find can also be used to recurse subdirectories and run a
      command:
           find . -name '*.c' -exec ls -l {} \;
      This gives any command the ability to recurse subdirectories.
      See rgrep.

   slocate
      Finds files in the filesystem using a database for fast searching.
      Have to do a "sudo slocate -u" to build the database at first.
      See find, updatedb, which, and whereis.

   ln
      Make hard or symbolic links between files.

   link
      Makes a hard link between files.

   lndir (X)
      Makes symbolic links to an entire directory worth of files.

   rev
      Reverse the lines in a file.  See tac.

   tac
      Display the lines in a file in reverse.  (Get it?  "tac" is "cat"
      spelled backwards.)  See rev.

   sort
      Sort the lines in a file.

   uniq
      Eliminate dupes in a file.  File must be sorted for this to work.
      See sort.

   split
      Split a file into pieces.  Useful for getting a large file on multiple
      floppy disks or CDs.

   tar
      Gathers files into an archive.  Similar to the ubiquitous ".zip" files
      but not compatible.

   bzip2
      Compresses a file to save space.  Use with tar.

   unzip
      Work with ".zip" files.  Use "zip" to make .zip files.

   tee
      Pipe standard input to standard output and to a file at the same time.

   touch
      Change a file's date/time.

   lsof
      List open files and statistics for each.

File Hacking Commands
   file
      Attempts to identify a file's type (e.g. JPEG image, MP3 audio) by
      examining its contents.

   xxd
      Hex dump.  Includes ASCII.  This can also convert back from a hexdump
      to a binary file.  It can create C code with the -i option and display
      EBCDIC with the -E option.

   hexdump
      Dumps a file in hex to the display.  Try the -C option for hex and ASCII.

   od
      Octal dump.  Can also dump in hex:
          od -Ax -x /etc/motd
      Can also include ASCII chars:
          od -Ax -x -c /etc/motd
      See hexdump.

   strings
      Shows things that resemble strings in a file.  Use for hacking binaries.

   bpe
      Console hex editor.  See khexedit for KDE.

X Window System Utilities
   xwmconfig
      Switch window managers (e.g. KDE, Xfce, GNOME, ...)

   xorgconfig
      Configure X for your video card and monitor.  Use this only of xorgsetup
      doesn't work.

   xdpyinfo
      Displays lots of X related info.

Networking Utilities
   netconfig (Slackware)
      Slackware script to configure Internet access.

   ifconfig
      Configure Ethernet interfaces.

   nmap
      Port scanning tool to make sure your firewall is working.
      "nmap localhost" to scan the local machine.

   zenmap
      GUI for nmap.

   iptraf
      IP Traffic monitor.  Packet sniffer.

   netwatch
      IP monitor.  Packet sniffer.

   tcpdump
      Dump traffic on a network.  Packet sniffer.

   dig
      DNS lookup.

   host
      DNS lookup.

   nslookup
      DNS lookup.

   ftp
      File transfer protocol.  Transfers files between computers.  Also try
      gftp (X GUI), lftp, ncftp, and sftp (secure ftp).

   wget
      Website capture utility.  Some websites deny access to wget.
      Use the -U=AGENT option to get around this.

   ssh
      Secure shell.  Connect to a shell prompt on another machine.  Like
      telnet, but encrypted.

   screen
      Gives you virtual terminals over a single telnet connection.  Does
      this work with ssh?

   gkrellm
      GNU Krell Monitors.  System monitor.  Monitors CPU, Processes, Disk
      usage, Memory, Network, etc...

   traceroute
      Show the routers along the way to a host.  (traceroute6 supports IPv6)

   tracepath
      Similar to traceroute.  (tracepath6 supports IPv6)

   iptables
      Firewall and NAT (Internet connection sharing) utility.

   netstat
      Displays various network information.

   socklist
      Displays a list of open sockets.  Also try "ss -a".

Device Utilities
   cfdisk
      Disk partition table manipulator.  Also try fdisk and sfdisk.

   parted
      Partition manipulation program.  Can create, delete, resize, and copy
      partitions.

   volname
      Returns the volume name (label) of a device.

   smartctl
      The SMART (IDE hard drive diagnostics) utility.  "smartctl -a /dev/hda3"
      gives all the info on hda3.  Use mount to figure out what device to
      check.

   df
      Shows how much space is free on your hard drives.

   du
      Shows how much disk space is used by a directory and its subdirectories.
      To see just a usage summary for each file and directory:
          du -sh .* *
      The "h" option gives human readable sizes and the .* gets hidden files.
          du -s * | sort -n
      for a nice sorted version.

   fsck
      Check a filesystem for errors and fix them.  Like the old DOS CHKDSK.

   stat
      Gives lots of information about a file.

   mount
      Mount a device on the filesystem.  Without parameters, mount shows the
      mounted devices.

   umount
      Unmount a device.

   cdparanoia
      Audio CD reading program.  Try on a bad CD and it should indicate where
      the problems are.  (Older version is called cd-paranoia.)

   dfutool
      Device Firmware Upgrade tool.

   dd
      Copy from one file or device to another.
      "dd if=/dev/fd0 of=floppy.img" copies an entire floppy to a file.

   diskcopy
      Floppy disk copy script.  Uses "dd" to do the copy.

   fdformat
      Format a floppy disk.  This is a low-level format.  It will not put an
      MSDOS filesystem (or any other kind) on the floppy.

   gkrellm (X)
      GNU Krell Monitors.  System monitor.  Monitors CPU, Processes, Disk
      usage, Memory, Network, etc...

   iostat
      CPU and Device statistics

   inotifywait
      Waits for changes to a file then quits.

   inotifywatch
      Collects statistics on accesses to a file.

   lsdev
      Displays device information like port addresses and IRQs.

   lshal
      Displays HAL devices.  Try "lshal | grep info.product".

   systool
      Displays system device info.

   mpstat
      Display CPU statistics.

   procinfo
      Displays system status info.

   sync
      Flush filesystem buffers (disk cache).

   lspci
      List all PCI devices.

Process Utilities
   & (bash)
      Place this at the end of a command line to run the command in the
      background.  E.g. when in KDE: "kwrite readme.txt &"

   Ctrl-Z  bg  (bash)
      If you forget the "&" at the end of your command line, you can press
      Ctrl-Z to suspend the process, then enter the "bg" command to continue
      the process in the background.

   ps
      Shows running processes.  "ps aux" for all the processes.  "ps ux" for
      just yours.

   pgrep
      Find a process by name.  E.g. "pgrep -l syslogd"

   top
      Shows processes that are using the most CPU in real-time.

   pstree
      Shows processes in a tree structure.

   nice
      Runs a command at low priority to be nice to other users.  Also try
      "renice".

   nohup
      Run a command immune to disconnects (hangup signals, SIGHUP).

   killall
      Kill a process or processes by command name.  "killall syslogd" kills
      the system logging daemon.

   kill
      Kill a process or just send it a signal.  "kill -l" to see a list
      of signals and their values.

   pkill
      Similar to killall but slightly more dangerous as it does a
      substring search rather than a whole word search.  So "pkill acpid"
      will kill the process named "acpid" but it will also kill the
      process named "kacpid".  To avoid this, use ^ and $ like this:
         pkill ^acpid$
      See pgrep.

System Utilities
   date
      Display or set the date and time.

   env
      Display or modify the environment.  Try printenv too.

   free
      Displays memory usage.

   gkrellm (X)
      GNU Krell Monitors.  System monitor.  Monitors CPU, Processes, Disk
      usage, Memory, Network, etc...  Requires X.

   tload
      Console system load graph.  Numbers at top are load averages.  See
      uptime for more.

   xload (X)
      Load histogram like tload, but for X.

   slabtop
      Some sort of memory monitor.  Press "q" to quit.

   taskset
      Retrieve or set a process's CPU affinity (which CPU the process will run
      on).

   uptime
      Displays system uptime and other info.  Also try "ruptime".

   uname
      Prints various system information.  Try "uname -a" to see everything.

   vmstat
      Show virtual memory statistics.

   at
      Schedule a job for later execution.

   dmesg
      Displays the messages from the last boot.

   watch
      Runs a command every two seconds.  Try "watch ps".

   sysctl
      Display and change kernel parameters.

   pkgtool (Slackware)
      Slackware's package management tool.  Use this to view, install, and
      remove packages.  Also check out the other Slackware package tools:
      installpkg, removepkg, upgradepkg, explodepkg, and makepkg.

Kernel Utilities
   lsmod
      List the loaded kernel modules.

   modinfo
      Display information about a kernel module.  Try "modinfo button".

   modprobe
      Insert and remove kernel modules with dependency checking.

   insmod, rmmod
      Insert and remove modules without dependency checking.  Use modprobe
      instead of these in most cases.

Shell Programming
   echo
      Display something on the screen.
          echo 'Hello World!'

   printf
      Display something on the screen like C's printf.  A more powerful echo.
          printf "Hello %x\n" 256

   dialog
      A nice text pop-up dialog routine for scripts.
          dialog --msgbox "Mount the USB Key." 6 30

   xmessage (X)
      X pop-up dialog.
          xmessage 'Shall we play a game?'

   dirname
      Returns the directory portion of a full pathname.  Try
          dirname /usr/bin/foo
      In bash scripts it's faster to do this:
          pathname=/usr/bin/foo
          echo ${pathname%/*}

   basename
      Returns the filename portion of a full pathname.  Try
          basename /usr/bin/foo.c
      In bash scripts it's faster to do this:
          pathname=/usr/bin/foo.c
          echo ${pathname##*/}

   line
      Copies a single line from stdin to stdout.  Try
          name=$(line)
      or
          name=`line`
      to get a line from the user.

   logger
      Sends messages to the message log.

   mktemp
      Make a temporary filename.

   tempfile
      Make a temporary file.

   ncftp*
      Script oriented ftp commands.  ncftpget, ncftpls, etc...  Try
      "apropos ncftp" to see them all.

   sed
      Stream editor.  Performs various transformations on files.  Try:
          sed 's/the/bluefoot/' file
      to replace every "the" with "bluefoot" in "file".

   seq
      Generates a sequence of numbers.

   sleep
      Delays for a number of seconds.

   xargs
      Run a command using each line of a file as the arguments for each run.

   getopt
      Helps process command line options to a script.  bash also has a
      built-in "getopts" command that can be used for this as well.

Programming
   g++
      C++ compiler.

   gcc
      C compiler.

   gcj
      Java compiler.

   clisp
      Common LISP compiler.

   gfortran
      FORTRAN compiler.

   gnat
      Ada compiler.

   as
      The portable GNU assembler.

   ld
      The GNU link editor.

   nasm
      The Netwide Assembler.

   ndisasm
      Disassembler.

   p2cc
      Pascal compiler.

   perl
      PERL language.

   python
      Python Programming Language

   ruby
      Ruby scripting language.

   slsh
      S-Lang script interpreter.

   make
      Builds only what needs to be built when changes are made to source code.

   strace
      Shows what system calls are being made by a program.  Try
      "strace cat /dev/null".

   strace-graph
      Processes the output of "strace -f" and displays a fork graph.

   time
      A very crude profiler.

   c++filt
      C++ name demangler.

   demangle
      C++ name demangler.

   nm
      Lists symbols in an object (.o) file.  Use "c++filt" or "demangle"
      to demangle C++ names.

   objdump
      Dumps various info from object (.o) files.

   size
      Displays sizes of sections of a .o or .a file.

   cscope
      C/C++ source browser.  Faster and more powerful than rgrep.

   cxxmetric
      C/C++ metrics PERL script.  Counts lines of code and comments.

   ctags
      Generates a source code name index for editors to allow jumping from
      an identifier's use to its definition.

   indent
      C code formatter.

   nc
      netcat utility.  Reads and writes data over the network.  Good for
      testing TCP/IP programs.

   oprofile
      Profiler.

   perror
      Converts an error code to text.

   cvs
      Version control system.  Other available version control systems are
      RCS (man rcsintro), Subversion (svn), "git", and hg.  Each has its
      own strengths and weaknesses.

   uuidgen
      Generates a UUID.

   xprop (X)
      Gives properties for a window.


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